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Maternal Exposure / Maternal Diseases
DIABETES
Uncontrolled diabetes in preguancy may cause
  • Abortions.
  • Still births.
  • Macrosomia and traumatic delivery.
    o Neonatal hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyper-viscosity, hyaline membrane disease, apnea.
  • Preterm delivery.
  • Congenital abnormalities including cardio vascular, central nervous system, genito-urinary, gastro intestinal and skeletal (sacral agenesis).
  • Intrauterine growth retardation in diabetic vasculopathy.


CARDIAC DISEASE
Cardiac disease in the pregnant women may cause
  • Fetal death.
  • Preterm delivery.
  • Fetal growth retardation.
Increased risk of fetal congenital cardio vascular anomalies if the mother has congenital heart disease (risk is 4.5%).
 
 
EPILEPSY
  • Epilepsy doubles the risk of fetal anomalies and the risk of inheritance of epilepsy.
  • If only one parent has evidence of epilepsy the risk in the child is 4% (above that of general population), and the risk increases if both parents or a sibling are epileptic.

PRE-ECLAMPSIA
May cause:
  • Fetal growth retardation.
  • Fetal hypoxaemia with abnormal fetal doppler wave forms.

CHRONIC RENAL DISEASES
Chronic renal failure in pregnant women may cause:
  • Small for date.
  • Preterm delivery.
  • Still births and neonatal deaths.
 

THYROID DISEASES
  • Hyperthyroidism may cause:
    • Abortions.
    • Fetal thyrotoxicosis, goiter associated with the presence of thyroid stimulating immuno globulins which cross the placenta in patients with Graves disease persistent fetal tachycardia may occur with growth retardation.
    • Congenital anomalies, chromosomal defects.
     
  • Hypothyroidism
    Women with hypothyroidism have a greater risk of:
    • Abortions.
    • Still births.
    • Prematurity.
    Untreated hypothyroidism may cause intellectual impairment of the newborn.

PHENYLKETONURIA
Women with phenylketonuria are at higher risk of spontaneous abortions, microcephaly and mental retardation.


SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSIS (SLE)
Women with SLE have a greater risk of:
  • Abortions.
  • Prematurity.
  • Intrauterine death.

Neonatal lupus erythematosus features neonatal discoid lupus and severe systemic disease:
Hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, skin lesions, congenital complete heart block; and in some cases neonatal death.

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